Investigation and Analysis of Organized Crime
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Gender and Organized Crime

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Conclusions and Recommendations

As has been reiterated throughout this report, the participation of women in organized criminal economies is becoming ever more relevant and is accelerating....
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Female Criminal Leadership and Differing Use of Violence

Women’s participation in organized crime groups is not uniform. The diverse roles that women play in criminal economies allow us to characterize different types...
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Roles of Women in Organized Crime

This section will discuss the main roles that women play in drug trafficking, human trafficking and migrant smuggling with a view to identifying the...
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Introduction to Gender and Organized Crime

In Latin America, the participation of women in organized crime has been in the shadow of academic and public policy debate due to the male dominance in the...
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Women and Organized Crime in Latin America: Beyond Victims and Victimizers

From cooks and coca harvesters to owners of their drug empires or trafficking and smuggling networks, women operate in a versatile manner, challenging...
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The Women Who Want to Leave Coca Behind in Colombia’s Putumayo

In Putumayo, as in much of Colombia, female coca growers face a difficult choice: obey armed groups and continue working in illegal economies, or put themselves at...
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El Salvador’s Black Widows – Female Leadership in MS13

An MS13 linked gang in El Salvador known as the Black Widows has been convicted of forcing women to marry men and then killing their new husbands as part of a...
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Colombia Observatory Report Demystifies Role of Women in Organized Crime

New studies are seeking to address the complex and rapidly evolving roles that women play in criminal structures, which have sometimes gone underreported or been...
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Former FARC Guerrillas Recognized as Victims of Sexual Violence in Colombia

A recent court decision recognizing acts of sexual violence that took place within the FARC during the armed conflict in Colombia has set a welcome precedent...
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Leadership Role of Women Often Overlooked in Mexico’s Organized Crime Landscape

A woman from Mexico’s drug trade heartland has been convicted in the United States for leading a sophisticated international trafficking network, highlighting the...
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The Ecuador Fishermen Snatched Away by US Drug Warriors

Before the call dropped, Bexy learned the hazardous details of Manuel’s journey. Desperate to find money to rebuild their home, he had agreed to transport cocaine...
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Women in Brazil PCC Cell Take Part in Planning Killings

Female members of a cell of Brazil’s violent PCC prison gang ordered and carried out the killing of another woman, challenging the assumption that women only...